Available Beams

An estimate of the yield of rare isotopes produced at NSCL can be calculated with the program LISE++. Please note that LISE++ is meant to provide an estimate of the beam rates. The facility does not guarantee that rates and purities will be in exact agreement with calculation, though we do our best to continuously improve the LISE++ calculations.

CCF PRIMARY BEAM LIST

A

Element

Energy (MeV/nucleon)

Intensity (pnA)

16

O

150

175

18

O

120

150

20

Ne

170

80

22

Ne

120

80

22

Ne

150

100

24

Mg

170

60

28

Si

160

10

36

Ar

150

75

40

Ar

140

75

40

Ca

140

50

48

Ca

90

15

48

Ca

140

80

58

Ni

160

20

64

Ni

140

7

76

Ge

130

25

82

Se

140

35

78

Kr

150

25

86

Kr

100

15

86

Kr

140

25

96

Zr

120

1.5

92

Mo

140

10

112

Sn

120

4

118

Sn

120

1.5

124

Sn

120

1.5

124

Xe

140

10

136

Xe

120

2

208

Pb

85

1.5

209

Bi

80

1

238

U

45

0.1

238

U

80

0.2



                                ReA3 RADIOACTIVE BEAM LIST

The list below is for ReA3 experiments only. If you plan to propose a very low energy "stopped beam" experiment, for example using LEBIT or BECOLA, you are not necessarily limited to this list, and the intensity will be different.
  • The ReA3 energy varies from 300 keV/u to a maximum of 6 MeV/u depending on the q/M of the ion beam used for acceleration, where q is the ion charge state and M is the mass of the isotope. ReA3 accelerates q/M values from 1/4 to 1/2.
  • The maximum energy achievable for a given charge state can be estimated as E (MeV/u) = 12 x q/M.
  • The maximum charge state achievable by the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) charge breeder for Mg, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Fe, and Co isotopes (and nearby elements) is q = Z, where Z is the atomic number. For Ga and Kr, and isotopes of similar atomic numbers, the highest charge state readily achievable is q = (Z - 2).
  • The charge breeding time increases significantly for high charge states, which influences the beam time structure. As an example for Ar, the charge states 14+, 16+ and 18+ can be produced with breeding times of approximately 45 ms, 100 ms, and 1000 ms respectively. Consequently, the beam will have a pulsed time structure compatible with these breeding times. For a given beam intensity, the width of the pulsed time structure can be adjusted from approximately 25 μs up to 70 ms.
  • The charge state used for acceleration is a compromise between the requested beam energy and the contaminants present in the beam for a given q/M, often originating from the EBIT residual gas. As examples, K-37 beams will contain Cl-37 contamination for any charge state smaller than 18+ as well as any beam with q/M = 2 will contain large amounts of bare He, C, N, and O contaminants.
  • All beams can be contaminated by their daughters and grand-daughters. Experiments should expect a level of contamination of the order of 20% or higher.
  • The intensities listed below are estimates and can vary depending on the requested energy and the level of contamination the experiments can accept, which will define the charge state used for acceleration, and hence, modify the intensity. As an example, K-37 beams free of Cl-37 contamination necessitates the use of 18+ or 19+ charge states that can significantly lower the beam intensity.
  • For beams with an asterisk, efficiencies from the gas cell were measured.
  • g/i refers to presence of ground state and isomeric state
  • Beam development must be requested by the user for beams that are not on the beam list before proposing an experiment. Stable beam requests can go to the Manager for User Relations, Jill Berryman, in the form of a letter to the NSCL Director. Radioactive beam requests can be made via a Letter of Intent during a period when the PAC is accepting proposals.

You may download a list of ReA3 beams here.

ReA3 Beam List

Mg

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
22 Mg g 3.8755 sec 8.7E+02
23 Mg g 11.317sec 1.8E+04
           

P
A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
29* P g 4.142 sec 6.4E+02
30 P g 2.498 min 3.1E+03
32 P g 14.263 d 4.6E+03
33 P g 25.35 d 3.1E+03
34 P g 12.43 sce 1.2E+03
35 P g 47.3sec 3.9E+02
           

S

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
30 S g 2.572 sec 4.6E+02
31 S g 2.572 sec 8.6E+03
35 S g 87.37 d 3.7E+04
37 S g 5.05 min 6.5E+03
38 S g 170.3 min 2.4E+03
39 S g 11 sec 8.8E+02
         

Cl

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
32 Cl g 298 ms 1.1E+03
33* Cl g 2.511 sec 1.7E+04
34 Cl g+i 1.5266 sec 8.8E+04
38 Cl g+i 37.24 min 5.2E+04
39 Cl g 56.2 min 2.2E+04
40 Cl g 1.35 min 5.7E+03
41 Cl g 38.4 sec 2.7E+03
42 Cl g 6.8 sec 1.0E+03
43 Cl g 3.13 sec 5.8E+02

 Ar

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
34 Ar g 843.8 ms 3.3E+03
35 Ar g 1.7756 sec 3.4E+04
37 Ar g 35.011d 1.4E+04
39 Ar g 269 y 1.0E+05
41 Ar g 109.61 min 3.1E+04
42 Ar g 32.9 y 3.1E+04
43 Ar g 5.37 min 1.8E+04
44 Ar g 11.87 min 7.8E+03
45 Ar g 21.48 sec 2.7E+03
46* Ar g 3.13 sec 7.0E+02

 K

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
37* K g 1.2 sec 1.2E+04
38* K g+i 7.636 min 7.9E+04
42 K g 12.4 hr 3.9E+04
43 K g 22.3 hr 6.8E+04
44 K g 22.1 min 8.6E+04
45 K g 17.3 min 9.8E+04
46* K g 105 sec 7.7 E+04
47 K g 17.5 sec 4.7E+04
           

Mn

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
50 Mn g+i 283.2 ms 4.8E+02
51 Mn g 46.2 m 1.8E+03
52 Mn g+i 5.59 d 3.6E+03
53 Mn g 3.7 My 2.8E+03
54 Mn g 312.1 d 2.0E+03
56 Mn g 2.58 h 1.1E+03
57 Mn g 85.4 s 5.3E+02
58 Mn g+i 3.0 s 3.6E+02

Fe

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
51 Fe g 0.3 sec 4.4E+02
52 Fe g+i 8.3 hr 1.2E+03
53 Fe g+i 8.5 min 8.0E+03
55 Fe g 2.7 yr 2.1E+04
59 Fe g 44 d 2.5E+03
60 Fe g 1.5 My 1.8E+03
61 Fe g 6 min 5.8E+02

Co

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
54 Co g+i 0.2 sec 1.6E+03
55 Co g 17.5 hr 1.6E+04
56 Co g 77 d 6.5E+04
57 Co g 272 d 6.7E+04
58 Co g+i 71 d 2.0E+03
60 Co g+i 5.2 y 1.1E+04
61 Co g 1.6 hr 8.8E+03
62 Co g+i 1.5 min 1.0E+04
63* Co g 27 sec 5.9E+03
64* Co g 300 ms 4.5E+02
         
         

 Ni

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
56 Ni g 6.075 d 1.9E +03
57 Ni g 35.6 h 1.3E+04
59 Ni g 101 ky 1.2E+03
63 Ni g+i 101.7 y 1.1E+04
65 Ni g+i 2.52 hr 1.3E+03
66 Ni g 54.6 hr 3.4E+02
67 Ni g+1 21 s 3.0E+02

Ga

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
64 Ga g 2.6 min 1.3E+03
65 Ga g 15 min 4.3E+03
66 Ga g 9.5 hr 5.0E+03
67 Ga g 3.2 d 5.3E+03
68 Ga g 68 min 2.6E+03
70 Ga g 21 min 1.3E+04
72 Ga g 14 hr 2.6E+04
73 Ga g 4.9 hr 3.2E+04
74 Ga g+i 8 min 2.2E+04
75 Ga g 126 sec 1.6E+04
76* Ga g 32 sec 6.2E+02
         
         

 Br

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
72*
Br
g+i
78.6 sec
3.5E+03
73
Br
g
3.4 min
2.5E+04
74
Br
g+i
25.4 min
9.5E+04
75
Br
g
96.7 min
1.0E+05
76
Br
g+i
16.2 hr
1.0E+05
77
Br
g+i
57.04 hr
6.0E+04
82
Br
g+i
35.282 hr
7.1E+04
83
Br
g
2.4 hr
7.0E+04
84
Br
g+i
2.4 hr
4.7E+04
85
Br
g
2.9 min
2.2E+04

 Kr

A Element g/i Half-life ReA Intensity (pps)
74
Kr
g
11.5 min
7.0E+02
75
Kr
g
4.29 min
6.2E+03
76
Kr
g
14.8 hr
4.3E+04
77
Kr
g
74.4 min
1.0E+05
79
Kr
g+i
35.04 hr
1.2E+03
85
Kr
g+i
10.776 y
1.0E+05
87 Kr g 76.3 min 4.0E+03

           REA3 STABLE BEAM LIST

Element A ReA Intensity (pps)
p 1 3.E+10
He 4 3.E+10
C 12 2.E+06
C 13 2.E+04
N 14 3.E+07
N 15 1.E+05
O 16 8.E+06
O 18 2.E+04
Na 23 8.E+06
K 39 8.E+06
K 41 1.E+05
Ar 40 4.E+06
Ar 36 1.E+04
Rb 85 1.E+07
Rb 87 4.E+06
Cs 133 5.E+06