Available Beams

An estimate of the yield of rare isotopes produced at NSCL can be calculated with the program LISE++. Please note that LISE++ is meant to provide an estimate of the beam rates. The facility does not guarantee that rates and purities will be in exact agreement with calculation, though we do our best to continuously improve the LISE++ calculations.
ReA3 Beam List

                     CCF PRIMARY BEAM LIST

A
Element
Energy (MeV/nucleon)
Intensity (pnA)
16
O
150
175
18
O
120
150
20 Ne
170
80
22 Ne
120
80
22 Ne
150
100
24 Mg
170
60
36 Ar
150
75
40 Ar
140
75
40 Ca
140
50
48 Ca
90
15
48 Ca
140
80
58 Ni
160
20
64
Ni
140
7
76
Ge
130
25
82
Se
140
35
78
Kr
150
25
86
Kr
100
15
86
Kr
140
25
96 Zr
120
1.5
112 Sn
120
4
118 Sn
120
1.5
124
Sn
120
1.5
124 Xe
140
10
136
Xe
120
2
208
Pb
85
1.5
209
Bi
80
1
238
U
45
0.1
238
U
80
0.2



                                ReA3 RADIOACTIVE BEAM LIST

The list below is for ReA3 experiments only. If you plan to propose a very low energy "stopped beam" experiment, for example using LEBIT or BECOLA, you are not necessarily limited to this list, and the intensity will be different.
  • The ReA3 energy varies from 300 keV/u to a maximum of 6 MeV/u depending on the q/M of the ion beam used for acceleration, where q is the ion charge state and M is the mass of the isotope. ReA3 accelerates q/M values from 1/4 to 1/2.
  • The maximum energy achievable for a given charge state can be estimated as E (MeV/u) = 12 x q/M.
  • The maximum charge state achievable by the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) charge breeder for Mg, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Fe, and Co isotopes (and nearby elements) is q = Z, where Z is the atomic number. For Ga and Kr, and isotopes of similar atomic numbers, the highest charge state readily achievable is q = (Z - 2).
  • The charge breeding time increases significantly for high charge states, which influences the beam time structure. As an example for Ar, the charge states 14+, 16+ and 18+ can be produced with breeding times of approximately 45 ms, 100 ms, and 1000 ms respectively. Consequently, the beam will have a pulsed time structure compatible with these breeding times. For a given beam intensity, the width of the pulsed time structure can be adjusted from approximately 25 micros up to 50 ms.
  • The charge state used for acceleration is a compromise between the requested beam energy and the contaminants present in the beam for a given q/M, often originating from the EBIT residual gas. As examples, K-37 beams will contain Cl-37 contamination for any charge state smaller than 18+ as well as any beam with q/M = 2 will contain large amounts of bare He, C, N, and O contaminants.
  • All beams can be contaminated by their daughters and grand-daughters. Experiments should expect a level of contamination of the order of 20% or higher.
  • The intensities listed below are estimates and can vary depending on the requested energy and the level of contamination the experiments can accept, which will define the charge state used for acceleration, and hence, modify the intensity. As an example, K-37 beams free of Cl-37 contamination necessitates the use of 18+ or 19+ charge states that can significantly lower the beam intensity.
  • For beams with an asterisk, efficiencies from the gas cell were measured.
  • g/i refers to presence of ground state and isomeric state
  • Beam development must be requested by the user for beams that are not on the beam list before proposing an experiment. Stable beam requests can go to the Manager for User Relations, Jill Berryman, in the form of a letter to the NSCL Director. Radioactive beam requests can be made via a Letter of Intent during a period when the PAC is accepting proposals.
ReA3 Beam List

Mg

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
21 Mg g 3.8755 sec 6.4E+01
22 Mg g 3.8755 sec 1.2E+03
23 Mg g 11.317sec 2.4E+04
27 Mg g 9.458 min 3.5E+02
28 Mg g 20.915 hr 2.6E+02
29* Mg g 1.3 sec 6.2E+01
           

P
AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
28 P g 270.3 ms 3.8E+01
29* P g 4.142 sec 8.5E+02
30 P g 2.498 min 4.1E+03
32 P g 14.263 d 6.2E+03
33 P g 25.35 d 4.1E+03
34 P g 12.43 sce 1.6E+03
35 P g 47.3sec 5.2E+02
36 P g 5.6 sec 1.5E+02
37 P g 2.31 sec 5.5E+01
38 P g 640 ms 1.1E+01
           

S

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
30 S g 2.572 sec 6.1E+02
31 S g 2.572 sec 1.2E+04
35 S g 87.37 d 4.9E+04
37 S g 5.05 min 8.7E+03
38 S g 170.3 min 3.1E+03
39 S g 11 sec 1.2E+03
40* S g 8.8 sec 3.1E+02
41 S g 1.99 sec 9.1E+01
         

 

Cl

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
31 Cl g 150 ms 5.1E+01
32 Cl g 298 ms 1.4E+03
33* Cl g 2.511 sec 2.3E+04
34 Cl g+i 1.5266 sec 1.2E+05
38 Cl g+i 37.24 min 6.9E+04
39 Cl g 56.2 min 3.0E+04
40 Cl g 1.35 min 7.6E+03
41 Cl g 38.4 sec 3.6E+03
42 Cl g 6.8 sec 1.4E+03
43 Cl g 3.13 sec 7.7E+02
44 Cl g 560 ms 2.3E+02
45 Cl g 413 ms 5.1E+01

 

Ar

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
33 Ar g 173 ms 6.7E+01
34 Ar g 843.8 ms 4.4E+03
35 Ar g 1.7756 sec 4.5E+04
37 Ar g 35.011d 1.8E+04
39 Ar g 269 y 1.4E+05
41 Ar g 109.61 min 4.1E+04
42 Ar g 32.9 y 4.1E+04
43 Ar g 5.37 min 2.4E+04
44 Ar g 11.87 min 1.0E+04
45 Ar g 21.48 sec 3.6E+03
46* Ar g 3.13 sec 9.3E+02
47 Ar g 1.23 sec 1.6E+01

 

K

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
37* K g 1.2 sec 1.5E+04
38* K g+i 7.636 min 1.1E+05
42 K g 12.4 hr 5.2E+04
43 K g 22.3 hr 9.1E+04
44 K g 22.1 min 1.2E+05
45 K g 17.3 min 1.3E+05
46* K g 105 sec 1.0E+05
47 K g 17.5 sec 6.3E+04
           

Fe

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
51 Fe g 0.3 sec 2.1E+02
52 Fe g+i 8.3 hr 1.6E+03
53 Fe g+i 8.5 min 1.1E+04
55 Fe g 2.7 yr 2.8E+04
59 Fe g 44 d 3.4E+03
60 Fe g 1.5 My 2.4E+03
61 Fe g 6 min 7.7E+02
62* Fe g 68 sec 1.5E+02
63* Fe g 6.1 sec 5.9E+01
64 Fe g 2.0 sec 1.9E+01
66 Fe g 351 ms 1.4E+00
68 Fe g 188 ms 5.6E-02

 

Co

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
52 Co g+i 0.11 sec 1.3E+01
53 Co g+i 0.24 sec 2.2E+02
54 Co g+i 0.2 sec 2.1E+03
55 Co g 17.5 hr 2.1E+04
56 Co g 77 d 8.6E+04
57 Co g 272 d 9.0E+04
58 Co g+i 71 d 2.7E+03
60 Co g+i 5.2 y 1.5E+04
61 Co g 1.6 hr 1.2E+04
62 Co g+i 1.5 min 1.3E+04
63* Co g 27 sec 7.9E+03
64* Co g 300 ms 6.0E+02
         
         

 

Ga

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
64 Ga g 2.6 min 1.8E+03
65 Ga g 15 min 5.7E+03
66 Ga g 9.5 hr 6.7E+03
67 Ga g 3.2 d 7.1E+03
68 Ga g 68 min 3.5E+03
70 Ga g 21 min 1.8E+04
72 Ga g 14 hr 3.5E+04
73 Ga g 4.9 hr 4.2E+04
74 Ga g+i 8 min 3.0E+04
75 Ga g 126 sec 2.2E+04
76* Ga g 32 sec 8.3E+02
         
         

 

Br

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
70 Br g+i 79 ms 2.8E+01
71
Br
g
21.4 sec
3.6E+02
72*
Br
g+i
78.6 sec
4.7E+03
73
Br
g
3.4 min
3.3E+04
74
Br
g+i
25.4 min
1.3E+05
75
Br
g
96.7 min
2.0E+05
76
Br
g+i
16.2 hr
2.0E+05
77
Br
g+i
57.04 hr
8.1E+04
78
Br
g
6.45 min
8.5E+02
82
Br
g+i
35.282 hr
9.5E+04
83
Br
g
2.4 hr
9.4E+04
84
Br
g+i
2.4 hr
6.2E+04
85
Br
g
2.9 min
2.9E+04
86
Br
g
55.1 sec
3.0E+02

 

Kr

AElementg/iHalf-lifeReA Intensity (pps)
73* Kr g+i 27.3 sec 6.1E+01
74
Kr
g
11.5 min
9.3E+02
75
Kr
g
4.29 min
8.3E+03
76
Kr
g
14.8 hr
5.8E+04
77
Kr
g
74.4 min
2.2E+05
79
Kr
g+i
35.04 hr
1.6E+03
85
Kr
g+i
10.776 y
4.3E+05
87 Kr g 76.3 min 5.3E+03
88
Kr
g
2.84 hr
1.9E+01

           REA3 STABLE BEAM LIST

Element A ReA Intensity (pps)
p 1 3.E+10
He 4 3.E+10
C 12 2.E+06
C 13 2.E+04
N 14 3.E+07
N 15 1.E+05
O 16 8.E+06
O 18 2.E+04
Na 23 8.E+06
K 39 8.E+06
K 41 1.E+05
Ar 40 4.E+06
Ar 36 1.E+04
Rb 85 1.E+07
Rb 87 4.E+06
Cs 133 5.E+06